Areas directly governed by the British are shaded pink; the under British are in yellow. As of 2012 , India is the world's largest arms importer; between 2007 and 2011, it accounted for 10% of funds spent on international arms purchases. Marriage is thought to be for life, and the divorce rate is extremely low. Journal of the American Oriental Society. It comprises the , the , the , and the. The on television broadcast ended in the 1990s and, since then, satellite channels have increasingly shaped the popular culture of Indian society.
Three of these wars were fought over the , while the fourth, the 1971 war, followed from India's support for the. India's consumer market, the world's , is expected to become fifth-largest by 2030. The is the and exercises most. In May 2017, the launched the , a gift from India to its neighbouring countries. Most are elected indirectly by the legislatures in numbers proportional to their state's share of the national population. The predominant religion, Hinduism, has been shaped by various historical schools of thought, including those of the , the , the , and by. Split lentils, or , are used extensively.
The service sector makes up 55. Archived from on 8 November 2016. The geographical term Bharat Bhārat; pronounced , which is recognised by the as an official name for the country, is used by in its variations. Many are religious in origin. Despite these early advances, standard time was not widely used outside astronomy.
It has the power to both strike down union or state laws which contravene the constitution, and invalidate any government action it deems unconstitutional. The between India and Europe is often cited by historians as the primary catalyst for Europe's. It has remained a democracy with civil liberties, an active Supreme Court, and a largely independent press. Often based on Hindu mythology, but also borrowing from medieval romances or social and political events, Indian theatre includes the of Gujarat, the of West Bengal, the and of North India, of Maharashtra, of Andhra Pradesh, of Tamil Nadu, and the of Karnataka. Fed by diverse resentments and perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, and summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, the rebellion rocked many regions of northern and central India and shook the foundations of Company rule.
The literacy rate in 2011 was 74. India is the world's most populous democracy. In , a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, and craft traditions. The pervasive and ecologically devastating human encroachment of recent decades has critically endangered Indian wildlife. Early political consolidations took place under the and ; later peninsular influenced cultures as far as Southeast Asia. However, it continues to face the challenges of , , , and. August 1975 , 1st ed.
British Journal of Political Science. Indian royalty, big and small, and the temples they patronised drew citizens in great numbers to the capital cities, which became economic hubs as well. Until 1991, all Indian governments followed policies that were influenced by socialist economics. The contains only one zone, namely. Many Indian species descend from originating in Gondwana, from which the separated more than 105 million years. In recent years, it has played key roles in the and the. The incumbent Indian prime minister is , a former of.
Operating under a parliamentary system, it comprises an upper house called the Council of States and a lower house called the House of the People. The sultanate was to control much of North India and to make many forays into South India. As the empire disintegrated, many among these elites were able to seek and control their own affairs. South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. The Congress, as the largest single party, was able to form a led by. The is among the significant emerging markets for the global pharmaceutical industry. The sultanate's raiding and weakening of the regional kingdoms of South India paved the way for the indigenous.
India's defining geological processes began 75 million years ago when the Indian plate, then part of the southern supercontinent , began a north-eastward caused by to its south-west and, later, south and south-east. The next decade was beset with crises: , the Congress's final push for non-co-operation, and an upsurge of Muslim nationalism. India has no national language. The government abides by constitutional. The resulting did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule.